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A nomenclatural type specimenTupperware Rare Gadgets Lot Shoe Horn Keychain, Butter Pat, Zipper PullInternational Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code), 2012). Type specimens coupled with published descriptions may be considered the foundation of botanical nomenclature.
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This work-in-progress currently enumerates about 953 types. Hundreds of bryophyte and lichen types are currently being researched for addition. Types included are: holotypes, isotypes, lectotypes, isolectotypes, neotypes, isoneotypes, syntypes, isosyntypes, epitypes, isoepitypes, paratypes, “cultivar types”, “clonotypes” and types whose designation has not yet been determined. Definitions for the type terminologies used in our site are below. Guidelines for annotation of type specimens may be found in the UF Herbarium web page, “Glen Appin Harris Tweed Baseball Cap Hat 100% Wool Flannel Plaid Panel Scotland,” by Kent D. Perkins and Wendy B. Zomlefer. High resolution digital images are being linked in as available for all of our type specimens.
Type Terms Used In This Site
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- Holotype: the one specimen* or illustration used by the author, or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type.
- Isotype: any duplicate specimen of the holotype.
- Lectotype: a specimen or illustration designated as the type when no holotype was indicated at the time of publication. If possible, the lectotype should be selected from the syntypes or original material.
- Isolectotype: any duplicate specimen of the lectotype.
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- Neotype: a specimen or illustration selected as the type when all of the material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing.
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- Paratype: a specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype, isotype, nor one of the syntypes. These are often listed as representative specimens in the original description.
- Epitype: “a specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type when the holotype, lectotype, or previously designated neotype, or all original material associated with a validly published name, is demonstrably ambiguous and cannot be critically identified for purposes of the precise application of the name of a taxon.” (ICBN Ch. 2, Sec. 2, Art. 9.7) The holotype, lectotype, or neotype that the epitype supports must be explicitly cited when the epitype is designated (see Art. 9.18).
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- Type**: specimens which are believed to be a type but the exact type status has not been researched or determined.
- Photo of a Type**: a photograph of a type specimen.
- Cultivar type: the so-called “type” specimen of a horticultural cultivar. Some such specimens have been called clonotypes by researchers, but we use a different definition for that term (below).
- Marvel comics lot: Ghost Rider, Captain America, Hulk used in our database to denote “a specimen taken from a vegetatively propagated part of the individual plant from which the type specimen was obtained” as defined in: Fernald, H.T. 1939. On type nomenclature. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 32(4): 689-702, p. 693.
- Topotype**: a specimen collected from the same location the original holotype material was collected.
- Non-type: specimens which are erroneously labelled as types should be annotated as, “Not a Type.”
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** These terms are commonly used but are not officially designated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (Melbourne Code), 2012.